介绍欧洲城市罗马 要英文的

时光凉人心
时光凉人心 2021-06-30 20:02
介绍欧洲城市罗马 要英文的
相关标签:
2条回答
  • 2021-06-30 20:02
    History  Mainarticle:HistoryofRome  FromfoundingtoEmpire  CapitolineWolfsucklestheinfanttwinsRomulusandRemus  Rome'searlyhistoryisshroudedinlegend.AccordingtoRomantradition,thecitywasfoundedbythetwinsRomulusandRemusonApril21,753BC.[11]ArchaeologicalevidencesupportstheviewthatRomegrewfrompastoralsettlementsonthePalatineHillbuiltintheareaofthefutureRomanForum.WhilesomearchaeologistsarguethatRomewasindeedfoundedinthemiddleofthe8thcenturyBC,thedateissubjecttocontroversy.[12]TheoriginalsettlementdevelopedintothecapitaloftheRomanKingdom(ruledbyasuccessionofsevenkings,accordingtotradition),andthentheRomanRepublic(from510BC,governedbytheSenate),andfinallytheRomanEmpire(from27BC,ruledbyanEmperor).Thissuccessdependedonmilitaryconquest,commercialpredominance,aswellasselectiveassimilationofneighbouringcivilisations,mostnotablytheEtruscansandGreeks.FromitsfoundationRome,althoughlosingoccasionalbattles,hadbeenundefeatedinwaruntil386BC,whenitwasbrieflyoccupiedbytheGauls.[13]Accordingtothelegend,theGaulsofferedtodeliverRomebacktoitspeopleforathousandpoundsofgold,buttheRomansrefused,preferringtotakebacktheircitybyforceofarmsratherthaneveradmittingdefeat,afterwhichtheRomansrecoveredthecityinthesameyear.  RomandominanceexpandedovermostofEuropeandtheshoresoftheMediterraneanSea,whileitspopulationsurpassedonemillioninhabitants.Foralmostathousandyears,Romewasthemostpoliticallyimportant,richestandlargestcityintheWesternworld,andremainedsoaftertheEmpirestartedtodeclineandwassplit,evenasitlostitscapitalstatustoMilanandthentoRavenna,andwassurpassedinprestigebytheEasterncapitalConstantinople.  FalloftheEmpireandMiddleAges  Fifteenth-centuryminiaturedepictingtheSackofRomeof410.  WiththereignofConstantineI,theBishopofRomegainedpoliticalaswellasreligiousimportance,eventuallybecomingknownasthePopeandestablishingRomeasthecentreoftheCatholicChurch.AftertheSackofRomein410ADbyAlaricIandthefalloftheWesternRomanEmpirein476AD,RomealternatedbetweenByzantinecontrolandplunderingbyGermanicbarbarians.Itspopulationdeclinedtoamere20,000duringtheEarlyMiddleAges,reducingthesprawlingcitytogroupsofinhabitedbuildingsinterspersedamonglargeareasofruinsandvegetation.RomeremainednominallypartoftheByzantineEmpireuntil751ADwhentheLombardsfinallyabolishedtheExarchateofRavenna.In756,PepintheShortgavethePopetemporaljurisdictionoverRomeandsurroundingareas,thuscreatingthePapalStates.In846,MuslimArabsinvadedRomeandlootedSt.Peter'sBasilica.[14]  RomeremainedthecapitalofthePapalStatesuntilitsannexationbytheKingdomofItalyin1870;thecitybecameamajorpilgrimagesiteduringtheMiddleAgesandthefocusofstrugglesbetweenthePapacyandtheHolyRomanEmpirestartingwithCharlemagne,whowascrowneditsfirstemperorinRomein800byPopeLeoIII.ApartfrombriefperiodsasanindependentcityduringtheMiddleAges,RomekeptitsstatusasPapalcapitaland"holycity"forcenturies,evenwhenthePapacybrieflyrelocatedtoAvignon(1309–1377).  RenaissanceRome  Thelatterhalfofthe15thcenturysawtheseatoftheItalianRenaissancemovetoRomefromFlorence.ThePapacywantedtoequalandsurpassthegrandeurofotherItaliancitiesandtothisendcreatedevermoreextravagantchurches,bridgesandpublicspaces,includinganewSaintPeter'sBasilica,theSistineChapel,PonteSisto(thefirstbridgetobebuiltacrosstheTibersinceantiquity),andPiazzaNavona.ThePopeswerealsopatronsoftheartsengagingsuchartistsasMichelangelo,Perugino,Raphael,Ghirlandaio,LucaSignorelli,BotticelliandCosimoRosselli.  TheperiodwasalsoinfamousforpapalcorruptionwithmanyPopesfatheringchildren,andengaginginnepotismandsimony.ThecorruptionofthePopesandtheextravaganceoftheirbuildingprojectsled,inpart,totheReformationand,inturn,theCounter-reformation.  TowardsthereunificationofItaly  GaribaldidefendstheRomanRepublicin1849.  Italybecamecaughtupinthenationalisticturmoilofthe19thcenturyandtwicegainedandlostashort-livedindependence.RomebecamethefocusofhopesofItalianreunificationwhentherestofItalywasreunitedundertheKingdomofItalywithatemporarycapitalatFlorence.In1861RomewasdeclaredthecapitalofItalyeventhoughitwasstillunderthecontrolofthePope.Duringthe1860sthelastvestigesofthePapalstateswereunderFrenchprotection.Anditwasonlywhenthiswasliftedin1870,owingtotheoutbreakoftheFranco-PrussianWar,thatItaliantroopswereabletocaptureRome.  20thcentury  AfteravictoriousWorldWarI,RomewitnessedtherisetopowerofItalianfascismguidedbyBenitoMussolini,whomarchedonthecityin1922,eventuallydeclaringanewEmpireandallyingItalywithNaziGermany.Thiswasaperiodofrapidgrowthinpopulation,from212,000peopleatthetimeofunificationtomorethan1,000,000,butthistrendwashaltedbyWorldWarII,duringwhichRomewasdamagedbybothAlliedforcesbombingandNazioccupation.AftertheexecutionofMussoliniandtheendofthewar,a1946referendumabolishedthemonarchyinfavouroftheItalianRepublic.  Romegrewmomentouslyafterthewar,asoneofthedrivingforcesbehindthe"Italianeconomicmiracle"ofpost-warreconstructionandmodernisation.Itbecameafashionablecityinthe1950sandearly1960s,theyearsofladolcevita("thesweetlife"),andanewrisingtrendinpopulationcontinuedtillthemid-1980s,whenthecommunehadmorethan2,800,000residents;afterthat,populationstartedtoslowlydeclineasmoreresidentsmovedtonearbysuburbs.  应该符合要求
    7 讨论(0)
  • 2021-06-30 20:02
    10thcenturyBCtothe7thcenturyBC,theItalianpeninsulainamulti-ethnic,multi-culturaleraofintertwined."AncientItaly"isoneofthemostimportantgroup.About1000BCintheBronzeAge,theycrossthenorthernandeasternpartsoftheAlpsandtheAdriaticSeatoreachItaly,andbrutallyforcedmanylocalindigenoustribesofmovementabroad.Atfirsttheylivedanomadiclife,buthasbeenmakingbronze,theuseofhorsesandcartswithwheelsofskills.ArrivedinItaly,theyformedafarming-basedwayoflife.Thiswayoflifeintothenextcentury,afewoftheirmainwayoflifeoffuturegenerations,untilthedeclineofRomancivilization."AncientItaly"byafewethniccomposition,includingSabine,UmbriaandLatin.9thcenturyBCandthe8thcenturyBC,theItalianpeninsula,therehavebeentwoofthenewnation:GreekandEtruscan.ThattheancientEtruscanpeoplefromtheEastAnatolia,anumberofarchaeologicaldiscoveries,confirmedthis.Fromtheorigin,itseemsthattheyarenotancientItaly,justastheyarenotIndo-Europeanlanguage,theircivilization,amixtureofEastandWestfromavarietyoffactors.Weilangnuowawell-knownrepresentativeoftheEtruscancivilizationwerethefirststageofdevelopment,fromwhichwecanseetheminthenewterritoriesachievedremarkableprogressinculture.Thisnewterritoryislocatedinthenorth-eastItalyandtheApenninemountainsbetweentheSeaandthecoastalplainregion.Etruscanpeopleliveinanindependent,powerfulcity-state,usuallybetweenthecity-statealliance.Theseinitialcity-stateruledbyamonarchy,andlaterbecameadoptedbytheParliamentandtheelectedofficialsoftheimplementationoftheruleofoligarchy.Etruscanpeoplehavebeenfarmingtribes,havewell-organizedarmy,theyusethearmytorulethenationaroundthesametime,theyliketooperatethebusinessandengagedinhandicrafts.TuscanyandnorthernpartsoftheLatiumregionoftheEtruscanpeopleshouldbethefirsttosettle.AsmallpartoftheLatininthisterritoryatthesouthernendoftheproliferationofinterest-bearing,wheretheultimateestablishmentofthecityofRome.Therefore,theEtruscancivilizationintheheydayofthevillageisonlytheRomans,withtheEtruscanlanguage,thoughtandreligionarecloselylinked:peopleareRomanEtruscancivilizationtoculturehavetransformedAuniquemostimportant.Ontheotherhand,inthe16thcenturyBCto11thcenturyBCMycenaeancivilizationbetweentheperiodofGreeksinsouthernItalyandcentralChinanavigatingcoastalareas,followedbyaperiodofstagnationmakestheirvoyagecometoanend.IntheWestbecauseoftraderoutesandcompetitionPhoenicians,whoestablishedanewbasefortrade,theninthe8thcenturyBC,sothatthefulldevelopmentofthecolony.TheyarethefirsthorseinItalyisCoosa(intheBayofNaplesYisijierIsland)toestablishacolonyagainafteraslightforcestoadvancenorthtoSicilyandthemainlandofkumicoastalareasinsouthernItaly.WiththecontactswiththeGreeks,theEtruscanpeoplewillsoonbecomemoremature,theycreateatextaccordingtotheGreekalphabettoformitsownstyleofpaintingandsculpture,tothedevelopmentoftheGreekgodsweretobebasedonreligiousbeliefsAndasetofwell-gazeoftheceremony.Later,allofwhichwereinheritedfromtheRomans.
    6 讨论(0)
提交回复
热议问题
为什么小米手机没有小米社区 2
淀粉和小麦粉一样吗 2
电磁炉出现e6是什么意思 2
粉红色免费的有小鸭子的那个QQ主题装扮叫什么名字? - 131****7717 的回答 2
只有一个人听到布谷鸟在叫代表着什么 2
蓝忘机为什么叫含光君?蓝忘机抹额什么含义? 2
请问一千瓦等于多少度电器的耗电量(千瓦时/24小时)0.68是什么意思?谢谢大家为我解答。 2
质子,中子带电吗? 2
爱因斯坦光电效应方程的物理本质是什么?就是hv=1/2mv2+A这个光电效应方程的物理本质是什么?谢谢! 2
"百家姓"是按照什么顺序排列的? 2
layui

微信扫码添加你问我答网站长

版权声明:本文内容由互联网用户自发贡献,该文观点仅代表作者本人。本站仅提供信息存储空间服务,不拥有所有权,不承担相关法律责任。如发现本站有涉嫌抄袭侵权/违法违规的内容, 请发送邮件至 2466368147@qq.com 举报,一经查实,本站将立刻删除。