什么是虚拟语态?

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时光凉人心
时光凉人心 2022-04-21 13:29
什么是虚拟语态?
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  • 2022-04-21 13:29
    虚拟语气(一)三种基本情况的谓语动词形式所述情况从句主句与现在事实相反if+主语+动词过去式(be动词用were)主语+would/could/might/should+动词原形与过去事实相反if+主语+动词过去完成式主语+would/could/might/should+have+过去分词与将来事实相反①if+主语+动词过去式②if+主语+wereto+动词原形③if+主语+should+动词原形主语+would/could/might/should+动词原形此表中需要注意几点:动词在表示与现在事实相反的从句中一般用were。  在非正式情况下,第一、第三人称后偶尔也用was。如:Ifhewereyou,hewouldgoatonce。2.主句中的should通常用于第一人称,would,could以及night可以用于各种人称。3.在表示与将来事实相反的条件句中,只能用should,而不能用would,could和might等。  如:Ifitshouldraintomorrow,wewouldnotgocamping。(shouldrain也可以用rained,weretorain代替)4.当条件状语从句表示的行为和主句表示的行为所发生的时间不一致时,被称为“错综时间条件句”,动词的形式要分别根据它所表示的不同时间作相应的调整。  如:Ifyouhadfollowedmyadvice,youwouldbebetternow。(二)含蓄条件句有时为了表达的需要,在虚拟语气中并不总是出现if引导的条件句,而通过其他手段来替代条件句。1.用介词短语替代条件句。  常用介词有with,without,butfor等。如:Wecouldn’thavesucceededwithoutyourhelp(=Ifwehadn’tgotyourhelp)。Butfortherain(=Ifithadn’tbeenfortherain),wewouldhavefinishedthework。  2.用不定式短语来替代条件句。如:Itwouldbeonlypartlyrighttodoitinthisway(=Ifwedoitinthisway)3。用定语从句代替条件句。如:Anationwhichstoppedworkingwouldbedeadinafortnight(=Ifanationstoppedworking,itwouldbedeadinafortnight)。  4.用一个副词或连词表示虚拟条件句。如:Hetelephonedtoinformmeofyourbirthday。or(=Ifhehadn’ttelephonedtoinformmeofyourbirthday)Iwouldhaveknownnothingaboutit。  5.用分词短语或独立主格结构来替代条件句。如:Everythingtakenintoconsideration(=Ifeverythinghadbeentakenintoconsideration),theywouldhaveraisedtheiroutputquickly。  (三)常用虚拟语气的句型在下列句型中,常用“should+动词原形”且should可以省略:1.在动词demand,order,require,insist,suggest等后that引导的宾语从句中。  如:Thedoctorsuggested/insistedthatshe(should)stayinbedforafewdays。注意:当suggest作“暗示、表明”讲,insist作“坚持说”讲,即坚持事实是怎样时,后边that从句不用虚拟语气。  如:Mikeinsistedthathehadneverstolenanything。Thelookonhisfacesuggestedthathewasangry。2.在名词advice,order,suggestion,request等后边that引导的同位语从句,或这些名词作主语时后面that引导的表语从句中。  如:Weallagreedtohissuggestion(that)we(should)giveuptheplan。Myideaisthathe(should)acceptthejob。3.在Itis+形容词(necessary,natural,strange,etc。  )+that从句中。如:It’snecessary/important/naturalthatwe(should)cleantheroomeveryday。4.在Itis/wasapity(ashame,nowonder,etc。  )+that从句中。如:Itwasapity/ashame/nowonderthatourteamshouldlosethegame。当然上面3、4两类的that从句中也可以不用虚拟语气,而用陈述语气。  如:Itisstrangethathedidnotcomeyesterday。Itisapitythatyoucan’tdance。(四)Itis(high/about)time(that)…句式中常用动词的过去式。  此句型表示“该……”,用来表示提议。如:Itishightimewestartedout。(五)用动词的过去式表示与现在事实(或将来事实)相反,用动词的过去完成式表示与过去事实相反的句型。1.wish后that引导的宾语从句中。  如:IwishIwereascleverasyou。Iwishhewouldtryagain。(表示与将来事实相反)if(though)引导的表语从句或方式状语从句中。如:Helooksasif/thoughhewereanartist。  3.wouldrather后的宾语从句中。如:I’dratheryoudidn’tgothere。4.Ifonly引导的感叹句中。如:Ifonly引导的感叹句中。如:IfonlyIwereabird。  (我要是只鸟就好了。)5.在含有Ifitwerenotfor或Ifithadnotbeenfor条件句的虚拟语气中。如:Ifitwerenotfortherain,thecropswould/shoulddie。  (六)省略if的情况如果从句中含有系动词、情态动词或助动词时,可省略if,把从句中的were,had或should提到其主语前形成倒装结构。如:WereIyou,Iwouldn’tdothat。Hadyoucomeearlier,youwouldhaveseenhim。  Shoulditraintomorrow,Iwouldstayathome。(七)虚拟语气表示委婉语气的句型would,could等词也常被用来表示委婉语气。如:Itwouldbebetterforyounottostayuptoolate。  Wouldyoubeinenoughtoshowmetheway?Wouldyoubesokindastoshowmetheway?。
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